During the Soviet period, Nicholas II's legacy was widely criticised within Russia, although discussion was heavily influenced by state propaganda, which described him as a bloodthirsty tyrant. Pavel Bykov, who wrote the first full account of the downfall of the Tsar for the new Soviet government, denounced Nicholas as a "tyrant, who paid with his life for the age-old repression and arbitrary rule of his ancestors over the Russian people, over the impoverished and blood-soaked country".
Nicholas II, Russian in full Nikolay Aleksandrovich, (born May 6 [May 18, New Style], 1868, Tsarskoye Selo [now Pushkin], near St. Petersburg, Russia—died July 17, 1918, Yekaterinburg), the last Russian emperor (1894–1917), who, with his wife, Alexandra, and their children, was killed by the Bolsheviks after the October Revolution.
Nicholas II was the last tsar of Russia under Romanov rule. His poor handling of Bloody Sunday and Russia’s role in World War I led to his abdication and execution.
Nicholas II, born in Tsarskoye Selo near St. Petersburg, Russia, was the first child of Alexander III and Marie Feodorovna (formerly Princess Dagmar of Denmark). Between 1869 and 1882, the royal couple had three more sons and two daughters. The second child, a boy, died in infancy.
The death of Alexander III on November 1 (October 20, Old Style), 1894, like that of Nicholas I nearly 40 years earlier, aroused widespread hopes of a milder regime and of social reforms. Nicholas II had neither the imposing physical presence nor the strong will of his father. He had all the virtues of a country gentleman and would have had a happy and useful life as a private landowner.
Nicholas may not have known how to rule Russia, but the monarchy he felt so ambivalent about has maintained some of its pull even 100 years after his murder.
Who Was Nicholas II? Young Nicholas, known as the "tsesarevich," or heir apparent to the throne, was born on May 18, 1868, the first child of Czar Alexander III and Empress Marie Feodorovna. He and his siblings grew up in Tsarskoye Selo, one of the residences of the imperial family located outside of St. Petersburg.
Nicholas II was the last tsar of Russia under Romanov rule. His poor handling of Bloody Sunday and Russia’s role in World War I led to his abdication and execution. (1868–1918)
Nicholas II has long been portrayed to the Russian people either as a bloody and committed despot — a relentless oppressor of the working class — or a clueless and lighthearted fool who ...
On 26 (14) November 1894, just days after inheriting the Russian throne following his father Tsar Alexander III’s death, Nicholas II married German princess Alix of Hesse, a granddaughter of Queen Victoria on her mother’s side and a godchild of Nicholas’ own father. As Russian Tsarina and Empress, she became known as Alexandra Feodorovna. Having married for love, Nicholas II was a family man. The royal couple moved their home to the suburbs of St Petersburg and paid rare visits to the ...