John Sigismund, German Johann Sigismund, (born Nov. 8, 1572—died Jan. 2, 1620), elector of Brandenburg from 1608, who united his domain with that of Prussia. His marriage in 1594 to Anna, the daughter of Albert Frederick of Prussia, made him heir to the title of that duchy, and he became duke of Prussia in 1618.
Sigismund I, byname Sigismund the Old, Polish Zygmunt Stary, (born Jan. 1, 1467—died April 1, 1548, Kraków, Pol.), king who established Polish suzerainty over Ducal Prussia (East Prussia) and incorporated the duchy of Mazovia into the Polish state. Sigismund I, the fifth son of Casimir IV and Elizabeth of Habsburg, had ruled Głogów, Silesia, since 1499 and became margrave of Lusatia and governor of all Silesia in 1504.
John Sigismund’s grandson Frederick William of Brandenburg, the Great Elector (reigned 1640–88), obtained by military intervention in the Swedish-Polish War of 1655–60 and by diplomacy at the Peace of Oliva (1660) the ending of Poland’s suzerainty over Ducal Prussia.
Sigismund was the son of King John III of Sweden and his first wife, Catherine Jagiellon, daughter of King Sigismund I of Poland. Elected monarch of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth in 1587, he sought to unify Poland and Sweden under one Catholic kingdom, and when he succeeded his deceased father in 1592 the Polish–Swedish union was created.
Sigismund Báthory, Hungarian Zsigmond Báthory, (born 1572—died 1613, Prague, Bohemia, Austrian Habsburg domain [now in Czech Republic]), prince of Transylvania whose unpopular anti-Turkish policy led to civil war.
The Duke of Prussia adopted the title of king as Frederick I, establishing his status as a monarch whose royal territory lay outside the boundaries of the Holy Roman Empire, with the assent of Emperor Leopold I: Frederick could not be "King of Prussia" because part of Prussia's lands were under the suzerainty of the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland. In Brandenburg and the other Hohenzollern domains within the borders of the empire, he was legally still an elector under the ultimate ...
Sigismund: 29 November 1378 1388 Younger brother of Wenceslaus; took control of Brandenburg on his brother's ascension as King of Germany and Bohemia. Gave up Brandenburg to his cousin Jobst as security for a substantial loan. Jobst: 1388 16 January 1411 Sigismund's first cousin, nephew of Charles IV.
Prussia had challenged Austria in 1850, but the complete failure of its mobilization in that year compelled the acceptance at Olmütz of the somewhat humiliating terms of Austria. Since then Prussia, with Bismarck as statesman, Count Helmuth von Moltke as strategist, and Count Albrecht von Roon as army organizer, had prepared methodically for a fresh challenge.
After Prussia’s victory, Austria retained only the Silesian districts of Krnov (Jägerndorf), Opava (Troppau), and Cieszyn (Teschen), which constituted extreme south-southeastern Silesia. These districts were united to Moravia until 1849 and afterward made a separate crown land of the Austrian Empire. The Silesian Germans and Protestants welcomed Prussian rule, which brought a more efficient administration and great attention to the region’s economic development.