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  2. Free Books - AynRand.org

    aynrand.org/students/free-books

    Rand then develops her own theory, explaining what is identical across all the instances integrated by a properly formed concept. Her view is that concept formation, in crucial respects, is a mathematical process: it relies on a form of measurement. Essential to her theory is a new account of similarity and of abstraction as measurement-omission.

  3. Normative Ethics - The Spiritual Life

    slife.org/normative-ethics

    Normative ethical theories. There are disagreements about what precisely gives an action, rule, or disposition its ethical force. There are three competing views on how moral questions should be answered, along with hybrid positions that combine some elements of each: virtue ethics, deontological ethics; and consequentialism.

  4. Environmental Ethics - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy

    plato.stanford.edu/entries/ethics-environmental

    To make such a separation not only leads to selfishness towards other people, but also induces human selfishness towards nature. As a counter to egoism at both the individual and species level, Næss proposes an alternative relational “total-field image” of the world. According to this relationalism, organisms (human or otherwise) are best ...

  5. individualism, political and social philosophy that emphasizes the moral worth of the individual. Although the concept of an individual may seem straightforward, there are many ways of understanding it, both in theory and in practice. The term individualism itself, and its equivalents in other languages, dates—like socialism and other isms—from the 19th century. Individualism once ...

  6. Hume’s view on external objects is that the mind is programmed to form some concept of the external world, although this concept or idea is really just a fabrication. (1) Hume’s skeptical claim here is that we have no valid conception of the existence of external things (Treatise, 1.2.6.9).

  7. 25 Values Worksheets to Enrich Clients’ Lives (+ Inventory)

    positivepsychology.com/values-worksheets

    Values play a critical role in these associations, as they shape the way we interpret situations (Vyskocilova et al., 2016). This Values and CBT tool provides an easy-to-understand example of this concept. You can also read this article about value clarification and how it pertains to positive CBT.

  8. Attribute - Definition, Meaning & Synonyms | Vocabulary.com

    www.vocabulary.com/dictionary/attribute

    An attribute is a quality or characteristic given to a person, group, or some other thing. Your best attribute might be your willingness to help others, like when you stopped traffic so the duck family could cross the street.

  9. Amazon.com: Atlas Shrugged (Audible Audio Edition): Ayn Rand ...

    www.amazon.com/Atlas-Shrugged-Ayn-Rand-audiobook/...

    It has the virtue of being written in simple language with short sentences so it is an easy read. That said, this particular edition has irritatingly heavy typeface and a cramped layout. If you fancy yourself as a superhero just read Sun Tzu 'The Art of War' or Clausewitz 'On War' which make clear and mercifully brief arguments which could ...

  10. John Locke: The Father of Liberalism - The Objective Standard

    theobjectivestandard.com/2019/08/john-locke-the...

    For an explanation of the source and secular nature of rights, see Ayn Rand, “Man’s Rights,” The Virtue of Selfishness: A New Concept of Egoism (New York: Signet, 1964). 61 . Quoted in Craig Biddle, “Ayn Rand’s Theory of Rights: The Moral Foundation of a Free Society,” The Objective Standard 6, no. 3 (Fall 2011), https://www ...