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  2. Altruism - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Altruism

    A related concept in descriptive ethics is psychological egoism, the thesis that humans always act in their own self-interest and that true altruism is impossible. Rational egoism is the view that rationality consists in acting in one's self-interest (without specifying how this affects one's moral obligations). Effective altruism

  3. Ethical Theories Summarized & Explained: Consequentialism ...

    objectivismindepth.com/2017/04/23/ethical...

    Modern virtue ethics takes inspiration from the moral theories of Ancient Greek philosophers like Plato, Aristotle, and the Stoics, (especially Aristotle.) Prominent advocates include Christine Swanton, Rosalind Hursthouse and Alasdair MacIntyre. Objectivist Ethical Egoism, unlike the other terms here, names one specific theory. It takes human ...

  4. Utilitarianism - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Utilitarianism

    Pre-modern formulations. The importance of happiness as an end for humans has long been recognized. Forms of hedonism were put forward by Aristippus and Epicurus; Aristotle argued that eudaimonia is the highest human good; and Augustine wrote that "all men agree in desiring the last end, which is happiness."

  5. Nathaniel Branden - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nathaniel_Branden

    Nathaniel Branden (born Nathan Blumenthal; April 9, 1930 – December 3, 2014) was a Canadian–American psychotherapist and writer known for his work in the psychology of self-esteem.

  6. “No matter what corruption he’s taught about the virtue of selflessness, sex is the most profoundly selfish of all acts, an act which he cannot perform for any motive but his own enjoyment . . . an act which is not possible in self-abasement, only in self-exaltation, only in the confidence of being desired and being worthy of desire.”

  7. Ayn Rand Quotes (Author of Atlas Shrugged) - Goodreads

    www.goodreads.com/author/quotes/432.Ayn_Rand

    She's earned it, it's a payment, not a gift. But to love her for her vices is a real gift, unearned and undeserved. To love her for her vices is to defile all virtue for her sake - and that is a real tribute of love, because you sacrifice your conscience, your reason, your integrity and your invaluable self-esteem.” ― Ayn Rand, Atlas Shrugged

  8. Environmental Ethics - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy

    plato.stanford.edu/entries/ethics-environmental

    To make such a separation not only leads to selfishness towards other people, but also induces human selfishness towards nature. As a counter to egoism at both the individual and species level, Næss proposes an alternative relational “total-field image” of the world. According to this relationalism, organisms (human or otherwise) are best ...

  9. Egoism - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy

    plato.stanford.edu/entries/egoism

    A third argument, like Moore’s, claims that ethical egoism is inconsistent in various ways. Say ethical egoism recommends that A and B both go to a certain hockey game, since going to the game is in the self-interest of each. Unfortunately, only one seat remains. Ethical egoism, then, recommends an impossible state of affairs.

  10. Belief - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Belief

    Some have also attempted to offer significant revisions to our notion of belief, including eliminativists about belief who argue that there is no phenomenon in the natural world which corresponds to our folk psychological concept of belief (Paul Churchland) and formal epistemologists who aim to replace our bivalent notion of belief ("either we ...

  11. Non-aggression principle - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Non-aggression_principle

    The non-aggression principle (NAP), also called the non-aggression axiom, is a concept in which aggression, defined as initiating or threatening any forceful interference (violating or breaching conduct) against either an individual, their property or against promises (contracts) for which the aggressor is liable and in which the individual is a counterparty, is inherently wrong.