During the Middle Ages, the monarchs of Castile and León, from Alfonso V and Alfonso VI (crowned Hispaniae Imperator) to Alfonso X and Alfonso XI tended to embrace an imperial ideal based on a dual Christian and Jewish ideology.
"~ the Astrologer": Alfonso X of Castile ( Spanish: Alfonso el Astrólogo; more commonly known as Afonso the Wise)  "~ the Avenger": Alfonso XI of Castile ( Spanish: Alfonso el Justiciero; also known as Afonso the Just)  B [ edit] "~ the Bad": Alexander III of Wallachia ( Romanian: Alexandru cel Rău) 
Kingdom of Italy 1944–1946. Italian Republic 1946–present. Rome: Ruins of the Forum, Looking towards the Capitol (1742) by Canaletto. The history of Rome includes the history of the city of Rome as well as the civilisation of ancient Rome. Roman history has been influential on the modern world, especially in the history of the Catholic ...