QALY is credited to work by Klarman et al. (1968), Fanshel and Bush (1970) and Torrance et al. (1972) who suggested the idea of length of life adjusted by indices of functionality or health. A 1976 article by Zeckhauser and Shepard was the first appearance in print of the term.
The Bancroft Prize is awarded each year by the trustees of Columbia University for books about diplomacy or the history of the Americas.. It was established in 1948, with a bequest from Frederic Bancroft, in his memory and that of his brother, diplomat and attorney, Edgar Addison Bancroft.
The Council on Foreign Relations (CFR) is an independent, nonpartisan member organization, think tank, and publisher.
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An American basic cable and satellite television news channel, founded in 1980 by American media proprietor Ted Turner. It was the first channel to provide 24-hour news coverage.