Sholom Schwarzbard, who had lost his family in the 1919 pogroms, held Symon Petliura responsible for them (see the discussion on Petliura's role in the pogroms ). According to his autobiography, after hearing the news that Petliura had relocated to Paris, Schwarzbard became distraught and started plotting Petliura's assassination.
Sholem Schwarzbard was an anarchist Yiddish-language poet from Ukraine. In 1926, he assassinated Ukrainian military commander Symon Petliura in revenge for deadly pogroms Petliura led in the Russian Civil War — and was found not guilty by a jury of his peers. The new issue of Jacobin is out now.
SCHWARZBARD, SHOLEM ( Samuel ; 1886–1938), Yiddish poet who assassinated *Petlyura. Born in Izmail (Bessarabia), Schwarzbard, who was active in the revolutionary movement of 1905 and organized Jewish *self-defense during the pogroms, had to escape from Russia in 1906. Ultimately he settled in Paris as a watchmaker.
In 1919, fighting in southern Ukraine as part of the Bolshevik Revolutionary Insurgent Army of Ukraine (RIAU), led by Grigori Kotovsky,  Sholom Schwartzbard was told that he had lost 15 members of his family in pogroms that had taken place in Odessa, Ukraine that year.
! vii!!!!! ANote!on!the!Transliteration!of!Proper!Names!!!! The!spelling!of!proper!names!is!a!problemfor!anyone!presenting!research!on! eastern!Europe,!and!I!have ...
Sholem Schwarzbard shot a former president—therefore he cannot possibly have violated Rosa Luxemburg’s instructions and enlisted in the French army to fight in the Second World War! One of the most fundamental divides in the world is between ideologues who assume that everything is simple and those who suffer the complications of the world ...
The thesis represents the first complete academic biography of a Jewish clockmaker, warrior poet and Anarchist named Sholem Schwarzbard. Schwarzbard's experience was both typical and unique for a Jewish man of his era. It included four immigrations, two revolutions, numerous pogroms, a world war and, far less commonly, an assassination.
In 1928, Sholom Schwartzbard decided to emigrate to Palestine, which was under British Mandate. However, the British authorities refused him a visa. In 1937 Schwartzbard traveled to South Africa to raise money for a Yiddish-language encyclopedia. He died in Cape Town on March 3, 1938.  Legacy
Samuel "Sholem" Schwarzbard was a Jewish Russian-born French Yiddish poet. He served in the French and Soviet military, was a communist and anarchist, and is known for the assassination of the Ukrainian national leader Symon Petliura in 1926.
Sholem-Shmuel Schwarzbard (Russian: Самуил Исаакович Шварцбурд, Samuil Isaakovich Shvartsburd, Yiddish language: שלום-שמואל שװאַרצבאָרד, French) (August 18, 1886 – March 3, 1938) was a Russian Yiddish poet of Jewish descent.